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Ecosystem Profile: Polynesia-Micronesia


Asian Development Bank (ADB). 2003. Pacific Region Environment Strategy. Discussion Draft. June 2003. ADB, Manila.

Allison, A. 2003. Biological Surveys- new perspectives in the Pacific. Org. Divers. Evol. 3: 103-110.

Allison, A. Personal Communication, 2003, Honolulu.

Allison, A., and Eldredge, L. 1999. Polynesia and Micronesia. p 390-401 in Mittermier, R.A. et al. Hotspots. Earth’s Biologically Richest and most Endangered Terrestrial Ecoregions. Cemex and Conservation International.

Allison, A., and Eldredge, L. 2004. Polynesia and Micronesia. in Mittermier, R.A. et al. Hotspots Revisited. Cemex and Conservation International.

Atkinson, I.E. and Atkinson, T. 2000. Land vertebrates as invasive species on the islands of the South Pacific Environment Program. In Invasive Species in the Pacific: A Technical Review and Draft Regional Strategy. Sherley, G. (Ed.). SPREP, Apia.

BirdLife 2000. Threatened Birds of the World. Stattersfield, A.J and Capper. D.R. (Eds.). BirdLife International, Cambridge.

Bishop Museum 2003. Living Archipelagos- Micronesia and Polynesia.Unpublished report. Bishop Museum, Honolulu.

Brown, M. Personal Communication, 2003, Auckland.

C.I. 1999. p 390-403 in Mittermier et al. Hotspots. Earth’s Biologically Richest and most Endangered Terrestrial Ecoregions. Cemex and Conservation International.

C.I. 2003. Pacific Protected Areas Database. Prepared by Joanna Axford for Conservation International, Apia, Samoa.

Cowie, R.H. 1996. Pacific island land snails: relationships, origins, and determinants of diversity. In: Keast, A. and Miller, S.E. (Eds.), Origin and evolution of Pacific Island biotas, New Guinea to eastern Polynesia: patterns and processes, SPB Academic Publishing, Amsterdam, pp. 347-372.

Cowie, R.H. 2000. Non-indigenous land and freshwater molluscs in the islands of the Pacific: conservation impacts and threats. In Invasive Species in the Pacific: A Technical Review and Draft Regional Strategy. Sherley, G. (Ed.). SPREP, Apia.

Cowie, R.H. 2001. Invertebrate Invasions on Pacific Islands and the replacement of unique faunas: a synthesis of the land and freshwater snails. Biological Invasions 3:119-136.

Cowie, R.H. Personal Communication, 2003, Honolulu.

Crocombe, R. 2001. The South Pacific. University of the South Pacific. 790 pp.

Dahl, A. L. 1980. Regional Ecosystems Survey of the South Pacific. SPC Technical Paper No.179. SPC and IUCN, Noumea.

Dahl, A. L. 1984. Biogeographical Aspects of Isolation in the Pacific. Ambio. vol 13, No 5-6:302-305.

Dahl, A. L. 1986. Review of the Protected Areas System in Oceania. UNEP and IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Eldredge, L.G. 2000. Non indigenous freshwater fishes, amphibians, and crustaceans of the Pacific and Hawaiian islands. In Invasive Species in the Pacific: A Technical Review and Draft Regional Strategy. Sherley, G. (Ed.). SPREP, Apia.

Eldredge, L.G., and Evenhuis, N.L. In Press. Hawaii’s Biodiversity: A detailed assessment of the numbers of species in the Hawaiian islands. BishopMusuem, Hawaii.

Eldredge, L.G. Personal Communication, 2004, Honolulu.

Faasao Savaii. 1998 The Rainforest and the Flying Foxes: An Introduction to the Rain Forest Preserves on Savai'i, Western Samoa. Elmqvist, T., Cox, P., Pierson, E.D. and Rainey, W.E. (Eds.). Faasao Savaii, Salelologa.

FAO. 2003. State of the World’s Forests 2003. FAO, Rome.

Flannery, T.F. 1995. Mammals of the South-West Pacific & Moluccan islands. Reed, Sydney.

Florence, J. 1997. Flora de la Polynésie Française. in Collection Faune et Flore Tropicales. ORSTOM, Paris.

Frost, D.R. 2002. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. (http://www.research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/)

Gillet, R., McCoy, M., Rodwell, L.,and Tamate, J. 2001. Tuna: A Key Economic

Resource in the Pacific. Pacific Studies Series. Manila: ADB.

Given, D.R. 1992. An Overview of the Terrestrial Biodiversity of Pacific Islands. SPREP, Apia.

Goldin, M.R. 2002. Field guide to the Samoan archipelago: fish, wildlife, and protected areas. Bess Press.

IPCC. 1996. Climate Change 1995. The Science of Climate Change. Summary for Policy Makers and Technical Summary of the Working Group 1. Report. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 56pp.

ISSG. n.d. 100 of the World’s Worst Invasive Alien Species. IUCN Oceania Regional Committee, Auckland.

ISSG. 2003. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). IUCN Invasive Species Specialist Group. (http://www.issg.appfa.auckland.ac.nz/database/welcome/)

IUCN. 2003. 2003 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. (http://www.redlist.org/)

IUCN. 2004a. WCPA World Commission on Protected Areas. (http://www.iucn.org/themes/wcpa/wcpa/protectedareas.htm)

IUCN. 2004b. Theme on Indigenous and Local Communities, Equity and Protected Areas: A joint Theme/Working Group of WCPA and CEESP. (http://www.iucn.org/themes/ceesp/Wkg_grp/TILCEPA/TILCEPA.htm)

IUCN-UNEP. 2003. 2003 World Database on Protected Areas. (CD-ROM). IUCN, Geneva and UNEP, Nairobi.

Keith, P., Vignieux, E., and Marquet, G. 2002. Atlas des poissons et de crustacés d'eau douce de Polynésie Française. Collection Patrimoines Naturels Volume 55. Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris

Lal,B.V,. and Fortune, K. 2000 (eds). The Pacific Islands An Encyclopedia. University of Hawaii Press, Hawaii.

Lydeard, C., Cowie, R.C., Ponder, W.F., Bogan, A.E., Bouchet, P., Clark, S.A., Cummings, K.S., Frest, T.J., Gargominy, O., Herbert, D.G., Hershler, R., Perez, K.E., Roth, B., Seddon, M., Strong, E.E., and Thompson, F.G. In Press. The Global Decline of Nonmarine Mollusks. Bioscience 54, No. 4.

Manner, H. 2003. Ecosystem Profile, Polynesia Micronesia Hotspot Micronesia Subregion. Unpub. report prepared for CI, Apia.

Martel, F., and Atherton, J. 1997. Timber inventory of the ifilele resource : Uafato conservation area project. SPREP, Apia

MacArthur, R.H., and Wilson, E.O. 1967. The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton University Press, New Jersey.

McCormack, G. 2002. Cook Islands Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. UNDP.

McIntyre, M. Personal Communication, 2004, Apia.

Meyer, J.-Y. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP member countries). In Invasive Species in the Pacific: A Technical Review and Draft Regional Strategy. Sherley, G. (Ed.). SPREP, Apia.

Meyer, J.-Y. and Florence, J. 1996. Tahiti’s native flora endangered by the invasion of Miconia calvescens DC. (Melastomaceae). Journal of Biogeography 23:775-781.

Meyer, J.-Y. Personal Communication, 2004, Papeete.

Mueller-Dombois, D., and Fosberg, F. R. 1998. Vegetation of the Tropical Pacific Islands. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Mueller-Dombois, D. 2002. Forest vegetation across the tropical Pacific: A Biogeographically complex region with many analogous environments. Plant Ecology 163:155-176.

Mueller-Dombois, D. Personal. Communication, 2004, Honolulu.

Nishida, G.M. and Evenhuis, N.L. 2000. Arthropod pests of significance in the Pacific: A preliminary assessment of selected groups. In Invasive Species in the Pacific: A Technical Review and Draft Regional Strategy. Sherley, G. (Ed.). SPREP, Apia.

Nunn, P. 1994. Oceanic Islands. Blackwell, Oxford.

Olson, D, and Farley, L. 2003. Polynesia Micronesia Hotspot Ecosystem Profile and Five-Year Investment Strategy: Fiji Sub Regional Profile. Unpub.report prepared for CI, Apia.

Olson, D.M. Personal Communication, 2003, Fiji.

Olson, D.M. and Dinerstein, E. 1998. The Global 200: a representation approach to conserving the Earth’s most biologically valuable ecoregions. Conservation Biology 12: 502–515.

Olson, D.M., Dinerstein, E., Wikramanayake, E.D., Burgess, N.D., Powell, G.V.N., Underwood, E.C., D’Amico, J.A., Strand, H.E., Morrison, J.C., Loucks, C.J., Allnutt, T.F., Lamoreux, J.F., Ricketts, T.H., Itoua, I., Wettengel, W.W., Kura, Y., Hedao, P. and Kassem, K. 2001. Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on Earth. BioScience 51: 933–938.

PABITRA. 2004. The Pacific Asia Biodiversity Transect Network. (http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/pabitra/)

Peteru, C. 1993. Government of Western Samoa legislative review. SPREP, Apia.

PIER. 2004. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER).(http://www.hear.org/pier/)

Raust, P. 2003. French Polynesia Subregional Profile. Unpub. report prepared for CI, Apia.

Roberts, C.M., McClean, C.J., Veron, J.E.N., Hawkins, J.P., Allen, G.R., McAllister, D.E., Mittermeier, C.G., Schueller, F.W., Spalding, M., Wells, F., Vynne, C. and Werner, T.B. 2002. Marine biodiversity hotspots and conservation priorities for tropical reefs. Science 295: 1280–1284.

Salinger, M.J., Renwick, J.A. and Mullan, A.B. 2001. Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation and South Pacific Climate. International Journal of Climatology, 21 (14), pp 1705-1722.

Scott, D.A. 1993. A Directory of Wetlands in Oceania. International Waterfowl and Wetlands Research Bureau, Asian Wetlands Bureau.

Sesega, S. 2003. West Polynesia Ecosystem Profile. Unpub. report prepared for CI, Apia.

Sherley, G and Lowe, S. 2000. Toward a regional invasive species strategy for the South Pacific: issues and options. In Invasive Species in the Pacific: A Technical Review and Draft Regional Strategy. Sherley, G. (Ed.). SPREP, Apia.

Smith, A. C. 1979 to 1995. Flora Vitiensis Nova. Volumes 1-5. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai.

SOPAC 2001. SOPAC Annual Report Summary 2000. SOPAC, Suva.

SOPAC. 2003. Reducing Vulnerability of ACP States. (http://map.sopac.org/tiki/tiki-index.php?page=ProjectPresentation)

SPC. 2003a. Secretariat of the Pacific Community.Oceania Population Update 2003. (http://www.spc.int/demog/Demogen/English01-02/RecentStats/2003/03poster.xls)

SPC. 2003b. Secretariat of the Pacific Community. SPESS Tables. (http://www.spc.int/statsen/English/Publications/Spess14/Spess_table_menu_E.htm)

Space, J. Personal Communication, 2004, Honolulu.

SPREP 1992. The Pacific Way. Pacific Island Developing Countries’ Report to the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. SPREP, Noumea.

SPREP. 1998. Action Strategy for Environmental Education and Training in the Pacific Region 1998-2003. SPREP, Apia.

SPREP. 1999. Action Strategy for Nature Conservation in the Pacific Islands Region. 1999-2002. SPREP, Apia.

SPREP.2001. South Pacific Regional Environment Program (SPREP) 2000 Annual Report. SPREP, Apia.

SPREP. 2003a. Action Strategy for Nature Conservation in the Pacific Islands Region 2003-2007 (eVersion). SPREP, Apia.

SPREP. 2003b. SPREP Annual Report 2002. Sustaining Pacific resources and development. SPREP, Apia.

SPREP. 2003c. Education and Awareness- Essential Ingredients for sustainable development. Unpub. information paper prepared by Seema Deo. SPREP, Apia

Stattersfield, A.J., Crosby, M. J., Long, A.J. and Wege, D.C. 1998. Endemic Bird Areas of the World: Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. BirdLife International, Cambridge.

Steadman, D.W. 1995. Prehistoric extinctions of Pacific island birds: biodiversity meets zooarchaeology. Science 267:1123-1131.

Stoddart, D.R. 1992. Biogeography of the Tropical Pacific. Pacific Science 46 (2): 276-293.

Timpson, S.L., Twining-Ward, T., Miles, G. and Ravuvu, A. 2003. GEF Small Grants Program (SGP) Mission to the Pacific island region. 1-17 April, 2003. Unpub. report prepared for UNDP, Apia.

TNC. 2003. A Blueprint for Conserving the Biodiversity of the Federated States of Micronesia. Micronesia Program Office, The Nature Conservancy, Pohnpei, FSM.

Twining- Ward, T. Personal Communication, 2003, Apia

UNDP. 1994. Pacific Human Development Report: Putting People first. UNDP, Suva.

UNDP. 2005. Human Development Report.

UNDP. 1999. Pacific Human Development Report: Creating Opportunities. UNDP, Suva.

UNDP. 2002. National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP). Federated States of Micronesia. UNDP, Suva.

UNEP 1999. Pacific Islands Environment Outlook. Miles, G. (compiler). SPREP, UNEP, and the European Community.

UNESCO. 2003a Proceedings of the World Heritage Marine Biodiversity Workshop. Hanoi, Vietnam, Feb 25- Mar 5, 2002. Hillary, A., Kokkonen, M., and Max, L. (Eds.). UNESCO, Paris.

UNESCO. 2003b.Central Pacific World Heritage Project. International Workshop Report 2-6 June, 2003, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. UNESCO, Paris.

United States Census Bureau. 2003. (http://eire.census.gov/popest/estimates.php)

Van Balgooy, M.M.J. 1966-1993. Pacific Plant Areas,. Volumes 2-5. Rijksherbarium/Hortus Botanicus, Leiden.

van Royen, P. and Davis, S.D. 1995. Regional Overview: Pacific Ocean islands. In: Davis, S.D., Heywood, V.H and Hamilton, A.C. (Eds.). Centers of Plant Diversity. A Guide and Strategy for their Conservation. Volume 2. Asia, Australasia and the Pacific. WWF and IUCN. IUCN Publications Unit, Cambridge (U.K.).

Veron, J.E.N. 1986. Corals of Australia and the Indo-Pacific. The University of Hawaii Press, Hawaii.

WCMC. 1992. Global Biodiversity: status of the earth's living resources. Groombridge, B (ed.). WCMC, Cambridge.

WCMC. 1994. Biodiversity Data Sourcebook,. WCMC Biodiversity Series No.1. Groombridge, B. (Ed.). Jenkins, M. (Advisory Ed.). WCMC, Cambridge.

Whistler, A. 2002. Samoan Rainforests. A guide to the vegetation of the Samoan Archipelago. Isle Botanica, Hawaii.

Whistler, A. Personal Communication, 2003, Honolulu.

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