December 14, 2000
CEPF has been designed to build on the World Bank's commitment to biodiversity conservation and sustainable management, primarily implemented through the GEF and channeled to governments. CEPF will complement the efforts of the World Bank and the GEF to conserve biodiversity by providing a streamlined funding mechanism to a broad range of civil society partners, including NGOs, community groups and private sector partners.
CEPF will further the overall goals of the Bank at the country level by offering an opportunity to engage local communities and other stakeholders in biodiversity conservation and ecosystem management. CEPF will also provide an important learning experience through an innovative online grant system at http://www.cepf.net/ and by focusing on on-the-ground results and experience. The site is designed to serve as a central node, disseminating lessons learned and facilitating cross-regional information exchange on conservation successes. It will also promote replication of successful projects by providing access to a wide range of resources designed to aid project implementers in the biodiversity hotspots.
CEPF will strive to use lessons from other programs, particularly the GEF's medium grants procedure, to ensure that funds are provided expeditiously and with appropriate, cost-effective levels of accountability. CEPF will also use the GEF national focal points to ensure client country endorsement of the strategic direction of the CEPF. CEPF is intended to complement, rather than duplicate or overlap with, regular GEF activities.
CEPF will support strategic working alliances among community groups, NGOs, government, academia and the private sector, combining unique capacities and eliminating duplication of efforts for a more comprehensive approach to conservation challenges. The CEPF is unique among funding mechanisms in that it focuses specifically on biological areas rather than political boundaries and will look at conservation threats on a corridor-wide basis for maximum return on investment. This will be a significant contribution in Madagascar where much of the investment has focused on safeguarding current levels of biological diversity within the existing protected areas, but not necessarily throughout the whole corridor. The strategic directions of the CEPF program are strongly linked to a thorough priority-setting process, and targets several gaps in this larger strategy. Building on the collaborative processes already underway in the region will allow not only for cooperation with the many nongovernmental, scientific and other private-sector participants, but also for the possibility of building the capacities of these various groups. In addition, CEPF aims to disburse funds to civil society in a more agile manner, complementing current funding available to government agencies.
Funds will be used to provide small grants to conservation projects managed by private, NGO and civil society groups working in the critical ecosystems. Funding from CEPF directed at the project level will leverage additional financial and in-kind contributions. By funding conservation efforts in production landscapes, such as agricultural areas, CEPF has the potential to build broader-than-usual support for conservation measures from the agricultural community, specifically encouraging agro forestry initiatives that maintain connectivity in corridor landscapes. In summary, CEPF offers an opportunity to promote the conservation of some of the most important ecosystems in the world--places of high biodiversity and great beauty. Conservation of these ecosystems is especially important given the values provided by healthy, diverse ecosystems to agriculture, forestry, water supply and fisheries. These are critical to the Bank's efforts to alleviate poverty. CEPF will deliver assistance in an agile manner; it will engage a wide range of local community groups, civil society organizations, NGOs and private companies in addressing conservation needs.
Background: Madagascar Hotspot
Using the results of the CPW, and monitoring the implementation of the GEF programs and PE2, the CEPF ecosystem profile outlines the biological importance of the ecosystem, the current threats it faces, and the current level of investment toward conservation by different donors, NGOs, and government agencies. Based on this review, a proposed strategic focus for CEPF is presented that complements past recommendations and current conservation efforts. This focus is summarized in an investment strategy aimed at delivering six main outputs:
The purpose of the investment strategy is to facilitate effective participation by nongovernmental and other private-sector organizations in the conservation of biodiversity in Madagascar. To be eligible for funding under this ecosystem profile, a project must not only contribute to one or more of the strategic funding outputs, but must also meet the following general criteria:
Biological Importance of the Madagascar Hotspot
Together, the other island groups add very little to the land area of the hotspot, yet they make a significant contribution to its biodiversity. Reunion and the Republic of Mauritius- which consists of the main island of Mauritius, Rodrigues, Round Island and a number of smaller islands- are located approximately 900 kilometers east of Madagascar and cover 2,040 square kilometers. The Comoros are located northwest of Madagascar in the Mozambique Channel and cover 2,171 square kilometers. Seychelles, with four main granitic islands, Mahé, Praslin, Silhouette and La Digue, and approximately 100 other granitic islands and coralline islets, covers an area of 455 square kilometers. Combined with Madagascar, these island groups bring the total area of the hotspot to 594,221 square kilometers.
In terms of the original extent of its native habitats, Madagascar and the Indian Ocean Islands represents the 10th largest of the 25 biodiversity hotspots that have been identified by Conservation International. It ranks 8th among the hotspots in terms of remaining intact habitat (approximately 18% of the original extent), according to the most recent estimates of tropical forest cover.
Levels of Biological Diversity and Endemism
The Mascarenes (Mauritius and Réunion) have 108 families, 323 genera and 955 species of vascular plants, of which 38 genera and 697 species (73%) are endemic. Comoros has 136 families and 416 species, of which 137 species (33%) are endemic, and Seychelles has 93 families, 170 genera and 200-250 species, of which one family, 12 genera and at least 70 species (35% of the lower estimate) are endemic. Together, these smaller islands add one endemic plant family, 50 endemic genera and 904 endemic species to the figures for Madagascar, raising the totals for the hotspot to 11 endemic plant families, at least 310 endemic genera, and 8,904-10,504 endemic species. No other hotspot has this many endemic families, and only three -the Tropical Andes, Sundaland and the Mediterranean- exceed this number of endemic plant species.
Comparative figures for terrestrial vertebrate groups are mixed, but no less impressive. On Madagascar, while overall bird diversity is relatively low (only 250 species), 115 (46%) endemic. Furthermore, there is a high rate of family-level endemism, with five bird families (Brachypteraciidae, Leptosomatidae, Mesithornidae, Phillepittidae and Vangidae) restricted to the island. Comoros has 91 bird species, of which 23 (25%) are endemic; the Mascarenes have 17 endemic bird species (seven on Réunion, eight on Mauritius and two on Rodrigues); and Seychelles has 170 bird species, 11 endemic.
The recent global analysis of restricted-range bird species by BirdLife International highlights the importance of the Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands Hotspot in its identification of 11 Endemic Bird Areas (EBAs), six of which are recognized at the critical level:
The list of critically endangered birds in the Madagascar and Indian Ocean Hotspot is among the highest for any of the 25 hotspots identified by Conservation International. From Madagascar it includes the Madagascar serpent eagle (Eutriorchis astur), Alaotra grebe (Tachybaptus rufolavatus), Madagascar pochard (Aythya innotata), Madagascar fish eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides), and Sakalava rail (Amaurornis olivieri). Comoros adds the Anjouan Scops-owl (Otus capnodes), Grand Comoro Scops-owl (Otus pauliani), Mount Karthala white-eye (Zosterops mouroniensis), Grand Comoro drongo (Dicrurus eminentissima), and Mayotte drongo (Dicrurus fuscipennis). From Seychelles, the list of includes the Seychelles Scops-owl (Otus insularis), Seychelles magpie robin (Copsychus sechellarum), Seychelles paradise flycatcher (Terpsiphone corvina), and Seychelles white-eye (Zosterops modestus). And the Mascarenes add five more: the pink pigeon (Columba mayeri), Mauritius parakeet (Psittacula eques), Mauritius olive white-eye (Zosterops chloronothos), Mauritius fody (Foudia rubra) and Rodrigues warbler (Acrocephalus rodericaus).
Of Madagascar's 300 reptile species, 274 (91%) are endemic, as are 36 out of 64 genera (56%). The Mascarenes add five endemic reptile species, Comoros 22 species, of which seven are endemic, and Seychelles 15 species, of which 14 are endemic. The island of Aldabra is also home to an endemic giant tortoise (Geochelone gigantea). Combined, the Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands Hotspot is home to at least 327 reptile species, of which 301 (92%) are endemic. These figures rank an impressive seventh and fourth among the world's hotspots, respectively.
Frogs are the only amphibians found on Madagascar. Only one or two of the island's 178 species are introduced 99% are endemic. Neither the Mascarenes nor Comoros have indigenous amphibians, but Seychelles adds 12 species, of which 11 are endemic. Thus the entire hotspot is home to 190 amphibian species, of which 187 (98%) are endemic. These figures rank Madagascar and the Indian Ocean Islands Hotspot seventh among hotspots in terms of amphibian diversity and fifth in terms of endemism, with the highest percentage of amphibian endemism for any hotspot (except for Polynesia/Micronesia and New Zealand, which only have three and four amphibian species, respectively).
While mammalian species diversity in Madagascar is not exceptional, 78 (67%) of the 117 species are endemic; excluding bats and introduced species, the level approaches 100%. The Mascarenes add two endemic mammals to the hotspot total, Comoros another 12 species and two endemics, and Seychelles another two species, both endemic. Overall, the hotspot ranks only nineteenth out of 25 for mammalian diversity, but sixth in terms of mammalian endemism.
Madagascar's primates are unquestionably the most prominent group of mammals native to this hotspot. Although it is only one of 92 countries in the world with wild primate populations, Madagascar is responsible for 21% (14 out of 65) of all primate genera and 29% (5 out of 17) of all primate families (Cheirogaleidae, Lemuridae, Megaladapidae, Indriidae and Daubentoniidae), making it the single highest priority area on Earth for conserving primate diversity. All 36 primate species and 54 taxa currently described are endemic to the island, two species almost certainly having been introduced by man to neighboring Comoros. Eleven species of Madagascar's lemurs are considered critically endangered: the white-collared lemur (Eulemur fulvus albocollaris), Sclater's lemur (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), golden bamboo lemur (Hapalemur aureus), Alaotran gentle lemur (Hapalemur griseus alaotrensis), broad-nosed gentle lemur (Hapalemur simus), red ruffed lemur (Varecia variegatarubra), silky sifaka (Propithecus diadema candidus), diademed sifaka (Propithecus diadema diadema), Perrier's sifaka (Propithecus diadema perrieri), Tattersall's sifaka (Propithecus tattersalli) and crowned sifaka (Propithecus verreauxicoronatus).
Levels of Protection for Biodiversity
The Ecoregions of Madagascar,br> Based on an action plan recently released by Madagascar's Association Nationale pour la Gestion des Aires Protégés (ANGAP), the national agency responsible for management of protected areas, the country can be divided into a series of Ecoregions and Transition zones which correspond roughly to earlier domains based on floristic composition.
The Eastern Ecoregion covers 115,617 square kilometers and is characterized by lowland rainforest occurring between sea level and 2,000 meters. It extends along Madagascar's east coast from just north of Sambava to Fort Dauphin. Only 35,229 square kilometers (30%) of this ecoregion's original forest cover remains; the largest remaining tracts are found in the northeastern and southeastern extent of its range. This is perhaps the richest region in Madagascar in terms of species diversity, as shown by studies of vascular plants and terrestrial vertebrates, and it is also characterized by local centers of endemism (e.g., the Masoala peninsula, the Andringitra massif and the regions of Andasibe and Zahamena).
The Central Ecoregion covers 170,887 square kilometers and is a heterogeneous ensemble of moist and dry formations that parallel the Eastern Ecoregion, extending westward across Madagascar's central plateau. This part of Madagascar has been largely deforested or modified by human activities; as a result, only 11,929 square kilometers (7%) of its original habitat remains intact.
The Northern Mountains Ecoregion, an area spanning 20,935 square kilometers, corresponds to the northern limits of the former Central Domain and is an area of high endemism for anthropods, amphibians, reptiles and rongeurs. It includes two geographically distinct high mountain regions, Tsaratanana and Marojejy. Approximately 8,664 square kilometers (41%) of this ecoregion's original forest cover remains intact.
The Northern Transition Zone is a relatively small area (5,524 square kilometers) of mixed forests growing above 800m and stretching coast to coast in a thin strip across northern Madagascar. This transition zone includes the Sambirano Domain, as well as the northeastern limits of the Central Domain. Approximately 1,028 square kilometers (19%) of these forests remain in their original condition.
The Western Ecoregion is the largest of Madagascar's ecoregions, extending over an area of 211,045 square kilometers. It is a vast zone of dry deciduous forests on Madagascar's western coastal plains and limestone plateau, ranging from sea level to 800 meters and covering the area from Antsiranana in the north to Morombe in the southwest, as well as a smaller block in the extreme northern part of the country which represents a major center of plant endemism. The bulk of this ecoregion is characterized by a dry season of almost seven months and, along with the eastern lowland forests, should be considered among the most endangered forest ecosystems in Madagascar. Unfortunately, only 31,372 square kilometers (15%) of the Western Ecoregion's original forest cover remains intact. Included within this larger region is the Analavelona Transition Zone, a tiny fragment of moist forest with characteristics of the Central Ecoregion.
The dry forests of the Southern Ecoregion cover an area of 57,721 square kilometers and are characterized by deciduous thicket or thorn scrub. They extend southward from Morombe along the coast, covering much of Madagascar's southern tip from sea level to 400 meters. Rainfall in this region is sparse and irregular. As a result, these are the driest forests in Madagascar and this is the region popularly referred to as the spiny desert. An estimated 19,131 square kilometers (33%) of the Southern Ecoregions original forests remain intact.
The Status of Protected Areas in Madagascar
A recent analysis conducted by Conservation International has identified the following 23 protected areas as most important to the conservation of threatened lemur diversity in Madagascar. These areas are indicated by an asterisk (*).
|Protected Area||Created||Area||Govt Region||Ecoregion||Authority|
|Andohahela *||8/7/971||760||Toliara||Eastern and Southern||ANGAP|
|Andringitra *||10/19/91||312||Fianarantsoa||Eastern and Central||WWF|
|Ankarafantsika 3 *||12/31/97||605||Mahajanga||Western||ANGAP|
|Baie de Baly||12/18/97||574||Mahajanga||Western|
|Marojejy *||5/19/81||601||Antsiranana||Northern Mountains||WWF|
|Midongy-Sud||12/18/72||1,922||Fianarantsoa||Eastern and Central|
|Montagne d'Ambre *||10/28/58||182||Antsiranana||Central||ANGAP|
|Tsingy de Bemaraha 4||8/7/71||666||Mahajanga||Western||ANGAP|
|Integral Nature Reserves|
|Lokobe||12/31/27||7||Antsiranana||Northern Transition Zone||ANGAP|
|Tsingy de Bemaraha *||12/31/27||854||Mahajanga||Western||ANGAP|
|Tsingy de Namoroka *||12/31/27||217||Mahajanga||Western|
|Zombitse-Vohibasia2||12/18/97||172||Toliara||Central and Western||WWF|
|Anjanaharibe-Sud *||10/28/58||321||Antsiranana||Northern Mountains||WWF|
|Cap Sainte Marie||10/24/62||18||Toliara||Southern||ANGAP|
|Forêt d'Ambre *||10/28/58||48||Antsiranana||Central||ANGAP|
|Manongarivo||2/20/56||327||Antsiranana||Northern Mountains and Northern Transition Zone||ANGAP|
|Marotandrano||2/20/56||422||Mahajanga||Eastern and Central|
|Nosy Mangabe *||12/14/65||5||Toamasina||Eastern||ANGAP/WCS|
|Pic d'Ivohibe||9/16/94||35||Fianarantsoa||Eastern and Central||WWF|